Early responses to Krashen's theory (Gregg, 1984; McLaughlin, 1987) based their critique in the claim that Krashen's constructs (such as the learning/acquisition distinction) are not empirically verifiable and hence not falsifiable. However, the concept of falsifiability, as the means for distinguishing science from non-science (Popper, 1959), has itself come in for considerable criticism, (e.g., Lakatos, 1970; Schumann, 1993). Feyerabend (1981) contends that adhering to strict empiricist methodologies can inhibit scientific progress. Indeed, it is disputed whether linguistics can or should be regarded as a science (see Harris, 1993).
The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination.
Hypothesis-Driven Development - The Hacker Chick Blog
But because of the acceleration of complexification and the vast distances between civilizations, it seems impossible that even an earliest-to-emerge civilization, however oligarchic, could prevent multi-local transcensions in any galaxy.
DEVELOPMENT HYPOTHESIS | AUSTIN INYUNDELE - …
What’s crucial here is that the hypothesis (Bumbles bounce) makes predictions (Bumbles will always bounce) and is testable (shove a Bumble off a cliff) and falsifiable (if the Bumble doesn’t bounce).
Hypothesis Development | Hypothesis | Null Hypothesis
But if transcension is the fate of all advanced civilizations, total energy use would only be a proxy for early civilization development, and a would be a misleading indicator late in development.
Dissertation Hypothesis Development - …
One simple and effective way that teachers can reduce student anxiety about completing the writing task correctly is to show them a model answer. The Smartboard is the perfect tool for briefly displaying what a good answer looks like. Teachers could collect good responses from previous years' students for this purpose. Alternatively, teachers could occasionally write the model answers. Doing ourselves what we require the students to do for us is a useful (not to say, salutary) exercise!
3. Development of working hypothesis: - Knowledge of …
Thus, if the hypothesis is correct, the Barrow scale, and more generally, STEM efficiency, STEM density, and computational growth scales would be much more appropriate measures of civilization development.
Literature review and hypothesis development | Rush …
What is needed now is to update and further constrain such ideas within a model of universal evolutionary development, a model that contrasts a small subset of statistically predictable developmental processes with the apparently much larger set of unpredictable evolutionary experiments occurring within the universe, and perhaps, an understanding of our universe as a finite system engaged in a developmental cycle within a multiversal environment (Smolin 1994).