3 - An acute chronic hepatitis B

Birth control pills increase inflammation as noted by increased C-Reactive Protein [CRP] blood levels, decrease glutathione, and decrease the body’s ability to control additional inflammation caused by the Gardasil vaccine(). Birth control pills may also increase the risk of clotting from the Gardasil or accompanying vaccination(s).


The Jade Ribbon Campaign is a program focused on reducing the nationwide health disparity in hepatitis B. This program sponsors community HBV screening and education clinics and partners with over 400 community-based organizations and federal and state agencies to provide culturally and linguistically tailored information and multimedia public-service announcements about hepatitis B burden, risk factors, transmission, prevention, detection, treatment, and followup to the API community and health professionals (Asian Liver Center, 2009; CDC, 2009b). The program’s clinics have found that about 45% of participants were not vaccinated against HBV, 9–13% of participants were chronically infected, and up to two-thirds of those who were chronically infected were unaware of their infection status. Of those who said that they had been vaccinated against HBV, 20% were unprotected and 5% chronically infected (Chao et al., 2009a; Lin et al., 2007). This model has been adapted by a number of cities around the country (Chang et al., 2009; Fernandez, 2008; Hsu et al.,


rates of hospitalisation, liver transplant and mortality for those with hepatitis A infection.

Similarly, in the Collaborative Injection Drug User Study Drug User Intervention Trial (DUIT), which enrolled 3,004 young IDUs in five US cities, 72% of anti-HCV-positive and 46% of anti-HCV-negative IDUs were not aware of their HCV serologic status (Hagan et al., 2006). History of drug treatment or needle exchange was associated with increased awareness of HCV serologic status, so these programs may be key locations for provision of HCV screening in this population. In a questionnaire survey given to 150 patients who were seeking substance-abuse treatment at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center, 90% of patients who were HCV-infected were not aware of their status, and 41% of the IDUs did not know or were unsure of how HCV is transmitted or about the complications of hepatitis C (Dhopesh et al., 2000)..

Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis-B and Hib - Pentavalent

Studies have shown that many primary care providers cannot differentiate between adult populations that should be screened for chronic hepatitis B because of their high prevalence of chronic infection (for example, people born in geographic regions with high HBV endemicity; see ) and populations that should be vaccinated against HBV because of their high risk of becoming newly infected (for example, health-care workers, men who have sex with men, prison inmates, and household and sexual contacts of chronically infected individuals) (Euler et al., 2003b; Ferrante et al., 2008; Lai et al., 2007).

Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis-B and Hib – Pentavalent

The other viruses such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses are transmitted through blood. Viruses responsible for these infections spread through the body secretions like saliva, sweat, semen, vaginal fluids of infected persons. Close contact and sexual intercourse are important factors in spread. Homosexuals contract these infections more easily. Blood, blood products, contaminated needles and tattooing, are also important sources through which infection spreads. These viruses are more resistant to the various methods of sterilisation than the AIDS virus. They are a major cause for concern as they spread rapidly. There are more people infected by Hepatitis B virus in the world than the AIDS virus.

Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis-B and Hib - Pentavalent

In a survey of primary care providers in San Francisco, all 91 respondents correctly answered that Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of chronic hepatitis B than non-Hispanic white or US-born Chinese people. However, a portion of the same group incorrectly identified HIV-infected