Extra iron is stored, mostly in the liver and bone marrow.

(This will disappoint well-read problem drinkers who understood that their hepatocytes had unlimited capacity to regenerate....) * Liver biopsies are not always easy to read, especially if the communityhospital pathologist isn't focused on liver.

Note that in burned-out cirrhosis when drinking is stopped, liver enzymes will be normal.

By the way, HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIA is usual in liver disease too (unless the primary problem is obstruction of bile flow -- why?), since the liver isn't producing LDL's.


Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis

The histology resembles normal liver, minus bile ducts and good lobular architecture.

* Worth learning sometime: Histologically, the hepatocellular carcinoma may look like nearly-normal liver, or be wildly anaplastic, or something in between.


Glycogen is stored in the liver and the muscles Muscles uses ..

The fibrosismay simply be thickened reticulin / collagenization surrounding individual cells (pericellular fibrosis)
3 Fibrosis with distorted structure but no obvious cirrhosis
4 Probable or definite cirrhosisCIRRHOSIS: Scarring of the whole liver sufficient to seriously interfere with proper perfusion of hepatocytes.

Enzymes of glycogen synthesis-UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ..

Glycogen is the fuel reserve that keeps our body running. Glucose, obtained from carbohydrates in our diet, provides the energy we need throughout the day. Sometimes, the glucose in our body runs low, or even is depleted. When that happens, the body pulls the needed energy from glycogen stores in muscle and liver tissue, converting the glycogen into glucose. Exercise, illness, and some dietary habits, can cause the glycogen stores to be depleted more quickly. Steps to restore the depleted glycogen can vary depending on the underlying reasons for the depletion.

glucose ingestion on postexercise liver and muscle glycogen repletion

cAMP stimulates phosphorylation of the the latter (inactivating phosphatase)
- Low cAMP levels release the phosphatase inhibitor

Stimulation of glycolysis

- activates phosphofructokinase1 stimulatingglycolysis
- produced by phosphofructokinase 2
- synthesis, breakdown regulated by phosphorylation of FBP kinase/phosphatase
- Phosphorylation activates the phosphatase, inhibits the kinase
- review in Trends in Biochemical Sciences (26, 30-35, (2001))
Liver
- Releases glucose by hydrolyzing G-6-P
- Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose during uptake phase
- Allosteric properties of liver glucokinase give muscle "glucose preference"
- Glycogen synthase activated only when PP1 released after virtually complete dephosphorylation of phosphorylase
Summary
- free glucose highly regulated
- glycogen (highly branched) is "battery"
- main "battery" is in liver, peripheral tissues have "minor batteries"
- glycogen synthesis and breakdown highly regulated
- critical enzymes regulated allosterically (rapid control)
- hormones control circuits by phosphorylation, dephosphorylation
- regulation is complex
Review
- Bollen, et al.

glucose from glycogen stores in muscle becomes the ..

Onion-skinning around the interlobular bile ducts (and eventualreplacement by fibrous onions): Primary sclerosing cholangitisLots of eosinophils in the portal areas: Drugs, parasites (rememberschistosomes),* primary biliarycirrhosis, * primary sclerosing cholangitis Granulomas in the liver: TB, histoplasmosis (Am.