Protein synthesis is accomplished by orderly interactions between mRNA and the other ribonucleic acids (transfer RNA [tRNA] and ribosomal RNA [rRNA]), the ribosome, and more than 100 enzymes. The mRNA formed in the nucleus during transcription is transported across the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm to the ribosomes—carrying with it the genetic instructions. The process in which the information encoded in the mRNA is used to direct the sequencing of amino acids and thus ultimately to synthesize a protein is referred to as .
One of the definitions of a gene is as follows: a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) carrying the code for a specific polypeptide. Each molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) is a transcribed copy of a gene that is used by a cell for synthesizing a polypeptide chain. If a protein contains two or more different polypeptide chains, each chain is coded by a different gene. We turn now to the question of how the sequence of nucleotides in a molecule of ribonucleic acid (RNA) is translated into an amino acid sequence.
explain how a gene directs the synthesis of an mRNA molecule…
plays a huge role in protein synthesis and translation. Its job is to translate the message within the nucleotide sequence of mRNA to a specific sequence. These sequences are joined together to form a protein. Transfer RNA is shaped like a clover leaf with three loops. It contains an amino acid attachment site on one end and a special section in the middle loop called the anticodon site. The anticodon recognizes a specific area on a mRNA called a .
Explain how a gene directs the synthesis of a protein
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. After is transcribed into a messenger (mRNA) molecule during , the mRNA must be translated to produce a . In translation, mRNA along with (tRNA) and work together to produce proteins.
What is a gene synthesis machine?
The newly formed polypeptide chain undergoes several modifications before becoming a fully functioning protein. Proteins have a . Some will be used in the , while others will remain in the or be transported out of the . Many copies of a protein can be made from one mRNA molecule. This is because several can translate the same mRNA molecule at the same time. These clusters of ribosomes that translate a single mRNA sequence are called polyribosomes or polysomes.
RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as ..
Myoglobin, a protein that stores oxygen in muscle cells, has been purified from a number of organisms. The protein from a sperm whale is composed of 153 amino acid units. What is the minimum number of nucleotides that must be present in the mRNA that codes for this protein?
is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to …
To manufacture protein molecules, a cell must first transferinformation from DNA to mRNA through the process of transcription. Then, aprocess called translation uses thismRNA as a template for protein assembly. In fact, this flow of information fromDNA to RNA and finally to protein is considered the central dogma of genetics, and it is the starting point forunderstanding the function of the genetic information in DNA.
Transcription (biology) - Wikipedia
But just how does translation work? In other words, how doesthe cell read and interpret the information that is stored in DNA and carriedin mRNA? The answer to this question lies in a series of complex mechanisms,most of which are associated with the cellular structure known as the ribosome. In order to understand thesemechanisms, however, it's first necessary to take a closer look at the conceptknown as the genetic code.