/chapter: D-Frequency-Modulation / CSOUND

Do a Google search and you can find many references on Frequency Modulation (FM) synthesis and how to use it, compared to subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, and other types.

The example D focuses on the ratio between the modulating and the carrier frequency.

It is important at theoutset of the discussion to realize that the modulator is notpart of the signal path--it is never heard directly, only itseffect on the carrier frequency.


c - Frequency Modulation Synthesis Algorithm - Stack …

The frequency of the carrier is f0*n1 and the the frequency of the modulator is f0*n2.

Very simply put, as the modulating waveform rises(increases in amplitude), so too will the frequency of thecarrier; as it falls, so too will the frequency of the carrier.


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As the sideband frequencies grow in amplitude and consequently distribute themselves symmetrically around the carrier frequency, eventually the sideband frequencies to the LEFT of the carrier frequency will reach a frequency value less than ZERO. If sideband frequencies appear as negative values, then they are in REALITY positive frequencies with a PHASE SHIFT of 180 degrees which results in 'fold-over', especially where these low frequencies coincide. The practical result is that as the modulation amount is increased more and more, the low frequency amplitudes increase more and more often giving unexpected results. See .

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The MODULATION AMOUNT is a value that is added to the Carrier FREQUENCY over time in both a positive and negative value at a RATE that is dictated by the modulation frequency. If the MODULATION AMOUNT is a large value such that it is GREATER than the Carrier Frequency, then NEGATIVE FREQUENCIES may be generated, creating in effect -- digital NOISE, unless the hardware or software compensates for the negative frequency values. For example, if the Carrier Frequency is 300 Hz and the Modulation Amount is 200HZ, then the lowest frequency that will result in the modulatin process = 300 - 200 (no problem!). However if the Carrier Frequency is 300 Hz and the Modulation amount is 500 Hz, then the lowest frequency that will result in the modulation process = 300 - 500 (big problem unless the hardware or software compensates for the negative frequencies, for example by utilizing the ABSOLUTE VALUE of the modulation amount). JSYD DOES compensate for the negative values by automatically using the absolute value of the modulation amount.