"word" in mRNA
is known as a
consecutive nucleotides that specify a
single amino acid
that is to be
For example, consider the following RNA sequence:
It would be read three bases at a time:
And these three codons represent the different amino acids:
UCG- CAC- GGU
Because there are
four different bases,
possible three-based codons (4x4x4 =64)
This wheel shows all 64 possible codons of the genetic code.
Some amino acids
can be specified by
more than one codon.
You start at the center of the circle and move outwards to find the amino acid.
There is also one codon,
, that can either specify for the
amino acid methionine
or serve as the
for protein synthesis.
There are also
three "stop" codons
any amino acid.
Accordingly, protein synthesis of a specific amino acid sequence takes place.
Overall, the process of protein synthesis involves transcription of DNA to mRNA, which is then translated into proteins.
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Comprising two primary parts (transcription and translation), the process of protein synthesis involves ribonucleic acids (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), enzymes, and ribosomes.
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in DNA cause transcription to
when the new RNA molecule is
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
not involved in coding for proteins.
code for proteins
because they are
in the synthesis of proteins.
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code
are made by
joining amino acids
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Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)
for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
RNA is like a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
three main types
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
carry copies of instructions
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
make up the major part of ribosomes.
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What are the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis One of the DNA strands in the double helix holds the genetic information used for protein synthesis This is called the sense strand or information