similarities with the morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy

Codeine is by far the most widely used opiate in the world and one of the most commonly used painkillers. Codeine can be extracted directly from the plant, most codeine is synthesized from the much more abundant morphine found in opium poppy. Codeine is converted by an enzyme in the liver to morphine, which is the active analgesic and a naturally occurring compound in humans. Canadians spend more than $100 million every year on codeine-containing pharmaceutical products and are among the world's top consumers of the drug per capita. Despite this, Canada imports all of its opiates from other countries.

Dioxygenases catalyze the O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy

CYP82Y1 was shown to catalyze the conversion of (R,S)-N-methylcanadine to (R,S)-1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine and also accepted (S)-N-methylstylopine as a substrate. Targeted metabolite and transcript profiling of eight opium poppy chemotypes that either accumulate or lack noscapine was used to identify CYP candidates potentially involved in phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism (). The same approach was used to isolate scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase (SOMT1), canadine synthase (CYP719A21), and noscapine synthase (NOS) (), along with two other O-methyltransferases (SOMT2 and SOMT3) (, , ). CYP82Y1, CYP82X1, CYP82X2, and CYP719A21 transcripts were detected in 454 pyrosequencing databases of opium poppy chemotypes accumulating noscapine or narcotoline (). These CYPs were also reported as four of a ten-member genomic cluster consisting of biosynthetic genes absent in a noscapine-free opium poppy chemotype (). The extended correlation between the occurrence of CYP transcripts corresponding to members of the ten-gene cluster and noscapine in several different opium poppy chemotypes suggests that the presence or absence of the gene cluster determines the ability to produce phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids.


of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, ..

Morimoto S, Suemori K, Taura F, Shoyama Y (2003) New dimeric morphine from opium poppy () and its physiological function.

Researchers at the University of Calgary have discovered the unique genes that allow the opium poppy to make codeine and morphine thus opening doors to alternate methods of producing these effective painkillers either by manufacturing them in a lab or controlling the production of these compounds in the plant.


Full text of "NEW" - Internet Archive

Codeine is by far the most widely used opiate in the world and one of the most commonly used painkillers. Codeine can be extracted directly from the plant, though most codeine is synthesized from the much more abundant morphine found in opium poppy. Codeine is converted by an enzyme in the liver to morphine, which is the active analgesic and a naturally occurring compound in humans. Canadians spend more than $100 million every year on codeine-containing pharmaceutical products and are among the world's top consumers of the drug per capita. Despite this, Canada imports all of its opiates from other countries.

secret: Genes that make codeine, morphine.

VIDEO: Researchers at the University of Calgary have discovered the unique genes that allow the opium poppy to make codeine and morphine, opening the door to alternate methods of producing these...

National Academy of Sciences ..

VIDEO: Researchers at the University of Calgary have discovered the unique genes that allow the opium poppy to make codeine and morphine, opening the door to alternate methods of producing these...