For example, there may be differences in species sensitivity as well as differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behaviour of lead in rodents, primates and humans.
In this article we consider the importance of assessing endocrine disruption in a large new cohort that has been proposed, the National Children's Study (NCS). We briefly review evidence that endocrine disruption is a potentially important hypothesis for human studies and weigh the need to assess endocrine disruption in the NCS. We note the salient features of earlier, similar cohort studies that serve as reference points for the design of the NCS. Finally, we discuss features of the NCS that would allow or enhance assessment of endocrine disruption, even if endocrine disruption were not a primary hypothesis motivating the study. At this time, the evidence supporting endocrine disruption in humans with background-level exposures is not strong. Thus, a compelling rationale for the NCS will probably need to be based on core hypotheses that focus on other issues. Nonetheless, if properly designed, the NCS could serve as an excellent resource for investigating future hypotheses regarding endocrine disruption.
Environmental Endocrine Disruption of Energy …
There are two main sources of evidence favoring this hypothesis. The first is extensive experimental evidence showing that many xenobiotic compounds have intrinsic hormonal activity. Laboratory animal studies indicate that a wide variety of hormone-dependent physiologic effects are associated with exposure to environmental pollutants, and in vitro mechanistic studies have demonstrated that environmental pollutants not only have affinity for hormone receptors but are also able to act via the receptor to induce agonistic or antagonistic effects. The second body of evidence favoring the endocrine disruption hypothesis derives from incidents of acute human and wildlife exposure to hormonally active xenobiotics, which have typically resulted in impaired reproductive capability in the exposed individuals and in their offspring, although cancer has also been implicated. Apparent trends in human disorders related to hormonal disruption, such as decreased sperm counts and increased incidence of breast and testicular cancers, are consistent with a possible role for widespread endocrine disruption, although this association remains controversial.
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In 2012, the third session of the International Conference on Chemicals Management agreed that international cooperation to build awareness and understanding and promote actions on endocrine-disrupting chemicals was an emerging policy issue. The Conference considered that information dissemination and awareness-raising on endocrine‑disrupting chemicals were particularly relevant and that improving the availability of and access to information on such chemicals was a priority. Later in 2015, the fourth session of the Conference invited the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization to address the needs identified by developing countries and countries with economies in transition by generating and disseminating information on endocrine-disrupting chemicals.
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In February 2013, UNEP and WHO released the report State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals - 2012 which identifies concerns, including evidence in humans, laboratory animals, and wildlife that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals can result in adverse effects and highlighted that an important focus should be on reducing exposure.
Endocrine Disruption - Diabetes and the Environment
A potential endocrine disruptor is an exogenous substance or mixture that possesses properties that might be expected to lead to endocrine disruption in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub) populations.