A temporal and geographical analysis of incidence rates for 23 major congenital malformations, derived from hospital-generated data collected by the Birth Defects Monitoring Program of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, failed to show any remarkable rate increase on Oahu, Hawaii, in 1981–1983 (the period when the milk supply was contaminated by the insecticide heptachlor; see section 6.2.1). This was based on comparisons with the rates for previous periods on this island and with the rates for the other Hawaiian islands, where no contamination occurred, and the total USA. A rise in the rates of cardiovascular malformations and hip dislocation was apparent but antedated the exposure. Over the 2-year period 1981–1982, 19 159 births (68% of those occurring on Oahu and all  of those occurring on the other Hawiian islands) were reported to the Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Limitations to the study include a possible misclassification of exposure status, as many individuals on Oahu may not have actually been exposed to heptachlor (e.g. non-milk drinkers), therefore minimizing the effect of exposure (Le Marchand et al., 1986).
Savage EP, Keefe TJ, Tessari JD, Wheeler HW, Applehans FM, Goes EA, Ford SA (1981) National study of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues in human milk, USA. I. Geographic distribution of dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, oxychlordane, and mirex. , 113(4):413–422.
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(2013), TimeEfficiency of Point-Of-Sale Payment Methods: Empirical Results for Cash, Cards, and MobilePayments, “Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing”, 141, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg,s.