However, once mRNA is produced, it leaves the nucleus and protein synthesis – translation – occurs in the cytoplasm. Thus transcription and translation are separated both in space within the cell and in time, in that one occurs after the other, as shown schematically in Figure 11.8. Thus the role of mRNA is to carry a coded message from the nucleus where the information is stored, to the cytoplasm where the coded message is translated into a specific protein; hence it’s name – RNA.
DNA replication means that each strand of DNA is being split into 2 copies.
What is DNA Replication?
Where does DNA Replication occur?
When does DNA Replication happen?
How does DNA Replication happen?
What is Transcription?
Where does Transcription occur?
When does Transcription happen?
How does Transcription happen?
What is Translation?
Where does Translation occur?
When does Translation happen?
How does Translation happen?
How are the processes affected by radiation?
What types of radiation can affect these processes?
What are some effects of radiation?
DNA mostly resides in the nucleus of the cell, so this is the site of replication.
It is replicated during mitosis.
Where does DNA synthesis and replication occur in the …
The only times when transcription may not occur is during DNA replication, when the entire DNA molecule is unzipped and copied (occurring only during S-phase in a portion of the cell cycle called Interphase) and may also be limited during Mitosis, when the DNA is in a condensed state that would make transcription difficult.
Transcription is the process in which the instructions on the DNA molecule are copied out onto an RNA molecule.
It must occur in the nucleus where the DNA in the cell is ..
DNA replication is a complex process requiring the intricately timed interaction of a large number of enzymes and accessory binding proteins (Figure 1). Damage encountered during replication, termed replication stress, can stall replication and activate the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR protects, repairs, and promotes the faithful completion of chromosome replication. Alternatively, if the damage burden is too large and cannot be repaired, the DDR targets the damaged cells for cell death. These DDR activities ensure that each daughter cell will be an exact and genomically intact replica of the parental cell. Mutations in DDR proteins lead to the accumulation of genomic instability that ultimately causes human diseases such as cancer. Therefore understanding the DDR is important to understanding mechanisms of disease etiology. The regulation of the DDR in response to insults such as irradiation and chemical toxins has been thoroughly studied; however attempts to investigate how the DDR is regulated under conditions of replication stress have been hampered by a lack of methods with sufficient sensitivity and resolution to explore the changes that occur over time at the replication fork. Now, Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology (VICB) member David Cortez and his laboratory propose a new method, iPOND (isolation of Proteins On Nascent DNA), that provides a high resolution picture of DNA replication at both healthy and stalled forks [B. M. Sirbu et al. (2011) Genes and Development, 25, 1320].
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This enzyme needs the 4 deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates, primer DNA, and template DNA and directs the synthesis of a DNA molecule following the sequence of the template strand.
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Field MS, Kamynina E, Agunloye OC, et al. (2014) Nuclear enrichment of folate cofactors and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) protect de novo thymidylate biosynthesis during folate deficiency. Journal of Biological Chemistry 289: 29642–29650.