explain organization of DNA in chromosomes briefly

Knowing how cells work is critical in the genetics field. All living things consist of one or both of two cell types: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The basic biologies of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are similar but not identical, so understanding the differences and similarities between them is important.

The prokaryotic DNA molecules contain a single origin of replication and a single replicon.

Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes finish the cell division cyle with cytokinesis, which completes the division of the cell in the cleavage furrow of animal cells, or the production of a new cell wall in plant cells.


explain organization of DNA in chromosomes step by step

The major groove is the site where most protein-DNA interactions occur.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).
Topics Gene Expression; DNA Transcription; Protein Synthesis; Cells; Stoichastics of Molecular Interactions; Description Express yourself through your genes.
The protein synthesis page provides a detailed discussion of the steps in protein synthesis and and eukaryotes Diphtheria toxin protein.
The differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes • S = synthesis of DNA which phosphorylate protein targets involved in the control.
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation.


Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes - DinoLore - Google Sites

(Farabee, 2010)
Replication of DNA
Cell Division
Gene Regulation
Transcription is the process of mRNA synthesis according to a "template strand" of DNA.

Dna replication in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes ..

Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells undergo cell division to reproduce, but due to the difference in organelles and cell comlexity, the process of cell division differs between cell types, although the three main components are present in both.

Lima contrasts DNA synthesis in Eukaryotes and prokaryotes

Although both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells undergo DNA replication, their chromosomes vary in size and origin number- eukaryotes being linear in structure and possibly haveing more than one origin.

prokaryotic vs eukaryotic replication.

Prokaryotic gene expression (both transcription and translation) occur within the cytoplasm of a cell due to the lack of a defined nucleus; thus, the DNA is freely located within the cytoplasm.

Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes | Prokaryote | Cell (Biology)

And are those the things that can be seen in the case photo?
Pilus are channels trough which plasmids can be transported to adjecent cells.
Eukaryotes
Eu (true) Karyon (nucleus)
Cell division
Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic cell division
Eukaryotes
"Mitosis"
Interphase: DNA is copied; two identical sets of chromosomes are formed.
Prophase: Crhomosomes condense into X-shaped structure
Metaphase: Chromosomes line up neatly end-to-end
Anaphase: Sister chromatids pulled apart
Telophase & Cytokinesis: Cell pinches in the middle
Membrane-bound organelles
Membrane-bound nucleus
Unicellular or mulicellular
Minority of the living things
Large cells
Rod-shped chromosomes
Main types of eukariotic cell:
Animal cell
Plant cell
Fungal cell
Origin:
Autogenous model
Chimeric Model
Eukaryotes
Eu (true) Karyon (nucleus)
Classification
1866
2005
Eukaryotes
Eu (true) Karyon (nucleus)
Cell division
Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic cell division
Prokaryotic
"Binary fission"
Cell replicates its DNA
The cytoplasmic membrane grows,
DNA molecules are separated
Cross wall forms; membrane segregates
Cross wall forms completely
Daughter cells
Organelles = internal membrane-bound structures
Plant cells have a cell wall, a large central vacuole, chloroplasts, and other specialized plastids, whereas animal cells do not, but they do not have centrosome and lysosomes
Protein synthesis
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
70'S ribosomes
Occurs before transcription of mRNA molecule is completed: simultaneous
No introns: no splicing
3 initiating factors
No poly A tail added to RNA
No 5'G cap is formed
80's ribosomes
Occurs in cytoplasm, after transcription of mRNA
Introns: splicing
9 initiating factors
Poly tail A added to RNA
Addiction of 5'G cap to mRNA
Which one is the more efficient?
What is the advantage of having organelles?
How does the cell organized itself and make everything work together and efficiently?
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
In what phase of the mitosis can you see the DNA under a microscope?
Supercoiling

Circular DNA

Single origin
of replication

Okazaki fragments
longer

Less enzymes

No nucleosomes
Histones

Linear DNA

Multiple origin
of replication

Okazaki fragments
shorter

More enzymes

Need to deal with
nucleosomes

Which replication process is faster?
2000 bp/s
100 bp/s
DNA replication
Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic replication
Major differences
Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
No nucleus
Contains nucleus
Circular DNA; supercoiled
Linear DNA; chromosomes
Unicellular; small colonies
Multicellar
Only ribosomes
All kinds of organelles
10-100 nm
1-10nm
Binary fission
Mitosis
more coding genome
less coding genome (95%)
What are the major differences?