## One can argue about the appropriate balance between alpha and beta.

They may investigate by using two or more hypotheses (including the null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis) to see which explains the data they have best.

Scientists can really change the world with their hypotheses and findings. In an effort to improve the world we live in, all it takes is an initial hypothesis that is well-stated, founded in truth, and can withstand extensive research and experimentation. Seek out your independent and dependent variables and go on out here and make this world a better place. Good luck!

## That’s How to State the Null Hypothesis!

the opposite of the research hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that any effects observed after treatment (or associated with a predictor variable) are due to chance alone. Statistically, the question that is being answered is "If these samples came from the same population with regard to the outcome, how likely is the obtained result?"

## Statistics: Null hypothesis - UC Davis Psychology

At first glance it makes sense, but the consequence of making a false alarm could be costly. For example, silicone breast implants have been commonly available since 1963, and Dow Corning was the major chemical company that manufactures silicone gel. But after some women who received the implant complained that they were very ill and the possible cause was the silicone gel, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a review and decided there wasn't enough data to show silicone breast implants were safe. As a precautionary measure, the FDA banned all silicone breast implants from 1992-2006. It is important to point out that the FDA did not have evidence to indicate that silicone breast implants are unsafe; rather, it demanded the evidence to ensure its safety. But the FDA's ban had triggered a massive flood of lawsuits against Dow Corning. In 1993 Dow Corning lost more than $287 million. Consequently, Dow Corning was under Chapter 11 protection from 1993-2004. Nonetheless, later many independent scientific studies, including the one conducted by U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM), found that silicone breast implants do not seem to cause breast cancers or any fatal diseases. But the company's reputation had severely damaged, almost beyond redemption (Gardner, 2008).

## -- the evidence used to accept or reject the null hypothesis

Since the Research Hypothesis cannot be proven, the next logical step is to see if we can fail to it. The Research Hypothesis (H1) is IF A THEN B (i.e. there is a relationship between A and B). The opposite, or Null Hypothesis (H0), is that there is . This is the logical NOT of **A B.**

## It is not possible to prove the null hypothesis, only disprove it.

For NOT A B there is only ONE condition that does not produce a contradiction: the condition where A is NOT related to B (shaded row). The Null Hypothesis is therefore a statement that there is NO relationship between A and B.