Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.
works for animals that are no more than a couple of millimeters thick, but for larger animals a respiration system was necessary. The rise of the arthropods has been an enduring problem for paleobiologists. Why was the arthropod so successful, particularly in the beginning? Segmented animals dominated Cambrian seas, and segmentation provides for repeated features. Segments obviously became important for locomotion but, for arthropods, segmentation appears to have conferred the more important advantage of distributed oxygen absorption. Each trilobite leg had an attached gill, and leg motion constantly drew fresh oxygenated water over each gill. Arthropods never developed the kinds of lungs that vertebrates have, or the pump gills of fish and other aquatic animals. Early arthropods breathed by moving their legs. Peter Ward’s recent hypothesis is that segments were first used for respiration, to provide a large gill surface area, and using the segments for locomotion came later. For trilobites, the same functionality that pushed water over gills was also coopted for food intake. Also, the leg-mounted gill was necessary because of an arthropod’s body armor; oxygen could not be absorbed through tough exoskeletons.
Define diffusion of responsibility.
The decline in real wages per hour and attendant rise in real prices for gasoline and homes is only a financial measure of the decline in energy resources and consumption. At the family budget level, as energy prices increase, all goods needing energy to produce such as gasoline, food, housing, medicine, and the like cost more. If they can even hold their marriages together (if they even get married anymore), both parents in American households work outside of their homes today, when only one did during the . As businesses try to remain competitive, wages are lower for those fortunate enough to keep their jobs, social goods such as education are prohibitively more expensive, and less money is available for anything beyond survival. For example, in the late 1970s and early 1980s I received a nearly free college education. In 2014, a college education comes with crippling debt as each student's "graduation present," unless the student has parents from the affluent class.
DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY AND LEVEL OF RISK …
Besides spiritual and theological commentaries, in which sometimes the star was catalogued as a "miraculous event," over the centuries there have been questions about the physical reality and the nature of such a celestial phenomenon as is described in the Gospel. This last question has, in a general view, some interdisciplinary aspects, because a study on what originated the phenomenon seen by the Magi is also a study about the relations between the Biblical Revelation and the natural world. From a theological perspective, such a study would deal with those meanings, allegorical or symbolical, connected with the star: the Biblical hermeneutic can discover and evaluate these meanings in the light of theological and ecclesiastical tradition. From an interdisciplinary scientific point of view, we try to determine whether and how the Star of Bethlehem can be associated with a real natural astronomical event. Among the positive effects of this association, there are also decisive elements for a definitive historical dating of Christ's birth (see Firpo, 1983). There is a fairly wide recent bibliography (many articles and some books) on the matter, which means that interest is still high (see Hughes, 1979; Martin, 1996; Teres, 2000). Minor, but valuable, attention has been dedicated by theologians and exegetes (see Holzmeister, 1942; Rosenberg, 1972; Quéré e Léna, 1996).
Passive Social Influence and the Bystander Effect. - …
Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.