Most current animal models of OCD are based on the study of maladaptive, repetitive behaviours (e.g. Dodman, Moon-Fenelli & Mertens, 1997). Such behaviour is thought to represent built-in survival actions encoded in the basal ganglia and arising due to dysfunction in these brain centres. Similarly, compulsions and tics in humans have been considered as fragments of once purposeful activities that arise inappropriately due to dysfunction within the cortico-striatal system (Carter, 1998). While of great interest the scope of these models does not extend to the phenomena of obsessional thoughts. Nevertheless, the suggestion of an innate, cross-species neurobiological system, charged with the generation of vital (primarily harm avoidance) survival behaviours, is obviously consistent with the current hypothesis.
Minsky's "hypothesis" was proposed to explain instability in a large, insulated, developed economy. Despite its intuitive appeal, it was not widely accepted among financial economists (Charles Kindleberger being a notable exception) because, they said, they could not find historical illustrations to fit the theory. The financial economist's machine runs smoothly in the best of all possible worlds. What makes trouble in the financial economist's world is the exogenous shock that affects everyone (war, oil prices) or government error (fiscal imbalance, monetary policy). "Financial distress," Barry Eichengreen and Richard Portes write in their study of sovereign debt rescheduling, "normally results from a real shock or bad policies." But Asia presents a cumulation of apparently rational decisions that are precisely those Minsky predicted.
What is ultimate hypothesis? and how is it different …
For example, increases in working memory could allow for simultaneous representation of the subject's and object's state, facilitating perspective taking.
while a kinesis distinguish between proximate and ultimate ..
Wrangham’s hypothesis is more robust and subtle than this essay can do justice to, but I will survey some of the findings, implications, and controversy. Raw food has various nutritional properties that are superior to cooked food, such as vitamins, but because cooked food provides more digestible calories for humans than raw food, it represented an evolutionary advantage. Meat, starches, and seeds are far more digestible when cooked, and are much easier to chew. Today, chimps in will not eat raw seeds of trees, but when a fire passes through the savanna, they search the ground below the trees and eat their cooked seeds.
These two categories were proximate and ultimate questions
The authors examine patterns of language adaptation in a sample of over 5,000 second-generation students in South Florida and Southern California, employing multivariate and multilevel analyses to identify the principal factors accounting for variation in foreign language maintenance and bilingualism. While a number of variables emerge as significant predictors, they do not account for differences across immigrant nationalities which become even more sharply delineated. A clear disjuncture exists between children of Asian and Hispanic backgrounds whose parental language maintenance and bilingual fluency vary significantly. Reasons for this divergence are explored and their policy implications are discussed.