AB - We report the synthesis of nitric oxide-releasing gold nanoparticles formed by place-exchange reaction of hexanethiol monolayer-protected clusters with diamine nitric oxide donor precursor molecules, which are subsequently converted to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. The nitric oxide release from the N-diazeniumdiolate-modified gold nanoparticles is tunable by varying the number and/or the chemical structure of the exchanged amine ligands. The size and stability of NO-releasing nanoparticles may prove useful for a range of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to exhibit significant anti-platelet activity and its release from polymer matrices has been already utilized to increase the biocompatibility of various blood-contacting devices. Herein, the details of a new synthetic approach for preparing NO-releasing diazeniumdiolated polyurethanes (PUs) are described. The method's utility is demonstrated by the incorporation of methoxymethyl- or sugar-protected pre-formed diazeniumdiolate moieties directly into chain extender diols which are then incorporated into the polyurethane backbone. This approach provides the ability to control the number of diazeniumdiolate groups incorporated into the polymer backbone, and hence the surface flux of NO that can ultimately be liberated from polymeric films prepared from the new PU materials. The method provides a means of covalently attaching diazeniumdiolate groups to polyurethanes in a form that resists dissociation of NO during processing but can be activated for spontaneous NO release via hydrolysis of the carbohydrate or methoxymethyl moieties under basic and acidic conditions, respectively.
Synthesis of N -Diazeniumdiolate NO Donors
We report the synthesis of nitric oxide-releasing gold nanoparticles formed by place-exchange reaction of hexanethiol monolayer-protected clusters with diamine nitric oxide donor precursor molecules, which are subsequently converted to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. The nitric oxide release from the N-diazeniumdiolate-modified gold nanoparticles is tunable by varying the number and/or the chemical structure of the exchanged amine ligands. The size and stability of NO-releasing nanoparticles may prove useful for a range of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
includes diazeniumdiolate heterocyclic derivatives, ..
N2 - Structural modifications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have successfully reduced the side effect of gastrointestinal ulceration without affecting anti-inflammatory activity, but they may increase the risk of myocardial infarction with chronic use. The fact that nitroxyl (HNO) reduces platelet aggregation, preconditions against myocardial infarction, and enhances contractility led us to synthesize a diazeniumdiolate-based HNO-releasing aspirin and to compare it to an NO-releasing analogue. Here, the decomposition mechanisms are described for these compounds. In addition to protection against stomach ulceration, these prodrugs exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxcity compared to either aspirin or the parent diazeniumdiolate toward nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cells (A549), but they were not appreciably toxic toward endothelial cells (HUVECs). The HNO-NSAID prodrug inhibited cylcooxgenase-2 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and triggered significant sarcomere shortening on murine ventricular myocytes compared to control. Together, these anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic, and contractile properties suggest the potential of HNO-NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation, cancer, or heart failure.
Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials
A synthetic path for the preparation of methacrylic homo- and copolymers containing secondary amine groups that can be converted into nitric oxide (NO) releasing N-diazeniumdiolates is described. The polymers are obtained by a multistep procedure involving synthesis of methacrylate monomers containing boc-protected secondary amine sites, free radical benzoyl peroxide initiated polymerization, deprotection of the amine sites, and subsequent reaction of the polymers with NO in the presence of sodium methoxide. Monomers with both linear and cyclic pendant secondary amines are examined as polymer building blocks. In most cases, polymers are obtained for both types with compositions that agree well with initial monomer ratios and with number average molecular weights (Mn) ranging from 1.69 to 2.58 × 106 Da. The final N-diazeniumdiolated methacrylic amine polymers are shown to release NO for extended periods of time with "apparent" t1/2 values ranging from 30 to 60 min when suspended in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Total NO loading and release for these materials can reach 1.99 μmol per mg of polymer and is proportional to the amine content of the polymer. It is further shown that by using a dimethacrylate cross-linking agent in conjunction with the various methacrylate amines, suspension polymerization methods can be employed to create small (100-200 μm) polymeric methacrylate microbeads. Such microbeads that can be sequentially deprotected and converted to NO release particles via in-situ diazeniumdiolate formation as carried out for the non-crosslinked polymers.