## The convergence hypothesis: History, theory, and ..

N2 - This article examines the conditional income convergence hypothesis for 17 major states in India for the period of 1960–2012. Univariate stationarity tests without structural breaks provide evidence against the convergence hypothesis. However, when two or more structural breaks are applied in per capita income series, the incomes of around 11–13 states are found to stochastically converge to the national average. This finding supports the convergence hypothesis for the panel as a whole after accounting for two data features, cross-sectional dependence and structural breaks in incomes, using a unified panel stationarity testing framework.

Convergent validity and divergent validity are ways to assess the construct validity of a measurement procedure (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). If you are unsure what construct validity is, we recommend you first read: . Convergent validity helps to establish construct validity when you use two different measurement procedures and research methods (e.g., participant observation and a survey) in your dissertation to collect data about a construct (e.g., anger, depression, motivation, task performance). Divergent validity helps to establish construct validity by demonstrating that the construct you are interested in (e.g., anger) is different from other constructs that might be present in your study (e.g., depression). To assess construct validity in your dissertation, you should first establish convergent validity, before testing for divergent validity. In this article, we explain what convergent and divergent validity are, providing some examples.

## ° The Convergence Hypothesis: History, Theory, and …

(See also Manabe, Hahn, and Holloway, 1974 and Goswami, Shukla,Schneider, and Sud, 1984, for further confirmation of thischaracteristic of moist convective adjustment.)Waliser and Somerville (1994) found in an analytical model that azonal strip of heating of finite meridional width produces thegreatest low level convergence some distance off the equator.

## Convergent and Divergent Accommodation in Language Death

Tomas, Holton, and Websterhypothesize that this convergence defines the location of the easternPacific ITCZ, which is the rising branch of the cross-equatorialHadley circulation.