Continuous hydrothermal synthesis of Ca1−xSrxTiO3 …

(2009) Direct continuous hydrothermal synthesis of high surface area nanosized titania. J ALLOY COMPD, 476 (1-2) 451 - 456. .

Continuous-flow hydrothermal synthesis for the …

The continuoushydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) technique addresses all such issues but it has notbeen used to synthesise calcium phosphate based nano-bioceramics.


Continuous hydrothermal synthesis of extensive 2D …

(2014) Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Lithium ion Battery Materials. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London).

There are a number of ways to improve the capacity of rechargeable batteries as suggested in the literature; carbon coating and reducing the particle size of the active material appear to be the most effective. In this work, the synthesis of pure phase LiFePO₄ nanoparticles was carried out directly in one step using the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) system. Conventional synthesis methods require many steps and longer duration to obtain this cathode material. Microscopic data confirmed that the particles were successfully covered with an even carbon coating in situ where fructose was used. Through the use of the CHFS pilot plant, larger batches of the samples were made to allow thorough characterisation and electrochemical analysis. Coin cells were assembled from electrode sheets with the samples synthesised as the active material. The data collected from carbon coated LiFePO₄ cells showed good performance in terms of high C rate cycling and the specific capacity the cells provided. The results were comparable to those seen in the literature and amongst the highest of LiFePO₄ produced from a CHFS method. The doping of LiFePO₄ with manganese was successful as confirmed by various analysis techniques but it did not appear to have improved the electrochemical operation of LiFePO₄. However, upon certain doping levels the energy density of the material was approaching the theoretical value. The CHFS system was also used in an attempt to synthesise cathode materials optimised for electrochemical performance. For example, reaction conditions were tailored to produce samples with reduced particle sizes and samples intimately mixed with conductive carbon in situ. Further work will be to optimise the material ratio for electrodes and increase the amount of active material to be used. Also, to investigate fully how the morphology and thickness of an electrode can affect the performance of the cell.


Continuous hydrothermal synthesis and crystallization …

N2 - Nanosized lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and transition metal oxide (MO, where M is Cu, Ni, Mn, Co, and Fe) particles are synthesized continuously in supercritical water at 25-30 MPa and 400°C under various conditions for active material application in lithium secondary ion batteries. The properties of the nanoparticles, including crystallinity, particle size, surface area, and electrochemical performance, are characterized in detail. The discharge capacity of LiFePO4 was enhanced up to 140 mAh/g using a simple carbon coating method. The LiFePO4 particles prepared using supercritical hydrothermal synthesis (SHS) deliver the reversible and stable capacity at a current density of 0.1 C rate during ten cycles. The initial discharge capacity of the MO is in the range of 800-1,100 mAh/g, values much higher than that of graphite. However, rapid capacity fading is observed after the first few cycles. The continuous SHS can be a promising method to produce nanosized cathode and anode materials.

CiteSeerX — Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis …

This work is concerned with the use of continuous hydrothermal synthesis at near-critical and supercritical conditions to obtain iron oxide and lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles.