This is an advanced course once the students are familiar with basic synthetic chemistry principles. Reactions of heterocyclic compounds (which form the basic skeleton of natural products) includes imidazoles, oxazoles, thiazoles, pyridazines, pyrimidines and pyrazines, terpenes, alkaloids, antibiotics, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleic acids and proteins. This course will also offer biosynthetic pathway of some important natural products.
1.5.2 Factors that may reduce paracetamol toxicity Many compounds, such as N-acetylcysteine and methionine (see section 1.4), have been shown to reduce paracetamol toxicity either by reacting directly with NAPQI or by facilitating glutathione synthesis.
Compare and contrast dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
When the salt is dissolved,ionization takes place:In the presence of water, Ac- undergo hydrolysis:And the equilibrium constant for this reaction is bof the conjugate base Ac- of the acid HAc.
as a This occurs through dehydration synthesis reactions
S-adenosyl-L-methionine is then demethylated to produce S-adenosyl-L-homo-cysteine, which is hydrolysed in a reversible reaction to yield homocysteine and adenosine.
will you compare and contrast dehydration synthesis …
2.4 Mechanisms involved in the formation of disinfectant by-products 2.4.1 Chlorine reactions Chlorine reacts with humic substances (dissolved organic matter) present in most water supplies, forming a variety of halogenated DBPs, such as THMs, HAAs, HANs, chloral hydrate and chloropicrin, as follows: HOCl + DOC -> DBPs It is generally accepted that the reaction between chlorine and humic substances, a major component of NOM, is responsible for the production of organochlorine compounds during drinking-water treatment.
distinguish between hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions
Review of the governing equations of compressible flow and Thermodynamic concepts. Forms of energy equation for compressible flow. Wave propagation speed in ideal gases. Isentropic flow. Stagnation Flow Properties. Critical Flow Properties. Compressible frictionless flow in a shock tube and variable area ducts based on one-dimensional Euler Equations. Normal Shocks and Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. Oblique shock waves. Expansion Waves. Prandtl-Meyer Function. Shock-Expansion Theory for external compressible flow past bodies. Conical Flows. Internal compressible flow in constant area and variable area ducts with heat transfer and with friction leading to notions of Rayleigh and Fanno Flows. Combustion Waves. Condensation Shocks. Compressible Potential Flow Theory. Vorticity considerations. Notions of compressible velocity potential. Development of low-order compressible flow models for high speed flows based on linearized small-disturbance potential flow theory for subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows. Similarity Rules. Brief insight into hypersonic flow and rarified gas dynamics concepts. Disturbance behavior in unsteady compressible flow. Notions of Compressible Boundary Layers. Crocco’s Theorem. Shock wave boundary layer interaction. High temperature flows. Aerodynamic Heating.
Hydrolysis reactions use water to breakdown polymers into ..
Detection and quantification of haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate in chlorinated natural waters are complicated by (i) hydrolysis of dihaloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate to dihaloacetic acids and chloroform, respectively; (ii) degradation of HANs by dechlorinating agents such as sodium sulfite and sodium thiosulfate; (iii) low purge efficiency for the HANs and chloral hydrate in the purge-and-trap technique; and (iv) low extraction efficiency for chloral hydrate with pentane in the liquid-liquid extraction normally used.