Starch: definition, chemical structure and classification

Plants synthesize two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellulose. The glycosidic bonds between glucose units in plant starch are similar to those in animal glycogen. Accordingly, starch molecules are structurally similar, forming compact coils, and play a similar role in energy storage for plants. Unlike glycogen, starch molecules vary widely in the level of branching. Most plants form a mixture of starch polymers with little to no branching and polymers with extensive branching.

The P i /3-phosphoglycerate ratio is the main regulator of starch synthesis

Nevertheless, Cu nanoparticles prepared in ambient atmospheric pressure without inert gas protection are prone to oxidation because the oxides of Cu are thermodynamically more stable than pure Cu. In addition, without proper protection copper nanoparticles are found to aggregate rigorously. Starch was used to control the growth of nanoparticles and protect them to avoid oxidation and aggregation. The main objectives of the study were the synthesis of Cu nanoparticles by chemical reduction method and their characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques.


Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect - …

All the chemicals used in the experiment were of analytical grade. Copper sulphate pentahydrate CuSO4·5H2O (0.1 M), Starch (C6H10O5) n (1.2 %), Ascorbic acid C6H8O6 (0.2 M) and Sodium hydroxide NaOH (1 M) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. De-ionized water was used for all the experiment.


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Development of improved methods for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles is of high priority for the advancement of material science and technology. Herein, starch-protected zero-valent copper (Cu) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel facile route. The method is based on the chemical reduction in aqueous copper salt using ascorbic acid as reducing agent at low temperature (80 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken to investigate the size, structure and composition of synthesized Cu nanocrystals, respectively. Average crystallite size of Cu nanocrystals calculated from the major diffraction peaks using the Scherrer formula is about 28.73 nm. It is expected that the outcomes of the study take us a step closer toward designing rational strategies for the synthesis of nascent Cu nanoparticles without inert gas protection.

Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash …

Modified starches are some of the mostly used ingredients in the food industry as flavor encapsulants or carrier materials. The physicochemical characteristics of taro modified starches (e.g., succinylated, phosphorylated, and acetylated) are investigated. It is determined that the chemical modifications made to taro starch produce important changes in the physicochemical properties mainly in the starch structure.

Which of the following enzymes would digest a fat

The study demonstrated a promising and generally applicable method to fabricate elemental copper nanoparticles by means of chemical reduction method. XRD results indicated that the starch-stabilized Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles are cubic in shape with mean size of 28.73 and 25.19 nm, respectively. This synthesis pathway is particularly suitable for large-scale synthesis of Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles attributed to its simple process and low cost. It is probable that the development of improved synthetic methods for Cu and Cu2O nanocrystals and more knowledge of their properties should lead to the great advancement in their applications such as catalysis and photoactivated energy conversion.