Chemical equilibrium expressions, equilibrium constant

1840:Publication of Justus von Liebig's Thierchemie which united thefield of chemistry and physiology. He pointed out that that organic compoundsin plants are synthesized from carbon dioxide in the atmospherewhile nitrogenous compounds are derived from precursors in the soil.

Catalytic synthesis of methanol.

This processes can provide a route to produce chemicals from biomass. The biomass is converted to synthesis gas, then to methanol and thence to liquid fuels.

Methanol is manufactured from synthesis gas which is a mixture of .

Liquid-phase methanol synthesis: Catalysts, mechanism, kinetics, chemical equilibria, vapor-liquid equilibria and modeling: A review.

To make the process more efficient the ammonia produced at equilibrium is removed by first cooling the mixture when the ammonia turns into a liquid which can be tapped off. The unreacted gases in the process are then mixed with fresh reactants and returned to the reaction chamber to reestablish the equilibrium again and the cycle is repeated continuously.

Kinetics of the Three Phase Methanol Synthesis

N2 - In commercial methanol production from syngas, the conversion is thermodynamically limited to 0.3-0.7 leading to large recycles of non-converted syngas. This problem can be overcome to a significant extent by in situ condensation of methanol during its synthesis which is possible nowadays due to the availability of highly active catalysts allowing for lower reactor temperatures. For the first time, in situ methanol condensation at 20 MPa and 473 K was demonstrated visually in a view cell. The condensation of reaction products (mainly methanol and water) drives the equilibrium reactions nearly to completion, as is demonstrated experimentally in a packed bed reactor and supported by thermodynamic calculations. Contrary to conventional methanol synthesis, once-through operation becomes possible avoiding recycling of unconverted syngas, which can be economically beneficial for industrial stakeholders. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Methanol synthesis reactions: calculations of equilibrium ..

It is possible to theoretically deduce that the overall reaction for methanol synthesis can be completed by biocatalysis using greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) as raw materials without adding hydrogen.

calculations of equilibrium conversions using ..

Methanol is used to make Terylene in two ways. One is as the alcohol to make the dimethyl ester of benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (terephthalic acid). The other is to make ethanoic acid (acetic acid), a large amount of which is used in the manufacture of benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid. It is used as the solvent in the liquid phase oxidation of 1,4-dimethylbenzene (p-xylene), leading to the production of .