In peptide synthesis diketopiperazine formation is a notorious side-reaction at the dipeptide stage and is particularly prone to occur in Fmoc based SPPS because of its mechanism.
A most promising type of new generation biocatalysts is cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) in which the protein solution containing the enzyme is subjected to non-denaturing precipitation by conventional procedures (i.e.
Large-scale synthesis of peptides.
The present review focuses on the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of peptides, aiming to establish a non-biased appreciation of their advantages, potentials, drawbacks and limitations.
Accelerated chemical synthesis of peptides and small proteins.
Biocatalyst engineering refers to all strategies aimed to obtain biocatalysts well suited to perform under the conditions of synthesis and include approaches that range from chemical modification to genetic and protein engineering (; ; ;
Chemical synthesis of proteins.
In addition, most hydrophobic solvents do not solubilize some of the substrates used in the reactions of synthesis, which also holds for peptide synthesis.
Enzymatic synthesis of cholecystokinin-octapeptide.
A 425 fold increase in enzyme activity was observed by the addition of 18-crown-6 to chymotrypsin in the synthesis of a dipeptide in acetonitrile medium (
Enzymatic synthesis of caerulein peptide.
An interesting approach was designed for the enzymatic synthesis of the cholescystokinin C-terminal octapeptide (CCK-8), which is a biologically active peptide of therapeutic value as an agent for the control of gastrointestinal function (
Enzymic synthesis of N- and O-linked glycopeptides.
Biphasic systems have been extensively used for enzymatic peptide synthesis and represents a good strategy because it is highly flexible and can accommodate to the properties of substrates and products (
Chemical Approaches To The Synthesis Of Peptides
There are several examples of proteases and other peptide bond forming enzymes which have been successfully employed in peptide synthesis in such media (
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The replacement of water for another solvent can be beneficial for the enzymatic synthesis of peptides for one or more of several reasons, which apply differently to each of the systems mentioned above, namely the increased solubility of hydrophobic amino acid or peptide substrates, the attenuation of the reverse or competing hydrolytic reactions, the reduction of product hydrolysis, the simplicity of product and/or biocatalyst recovery and the increased biocatalyst thermal stability.