Photosynthesis Part 4: The Calvin Cycle - YouTube

In the photosynthesis takes place in a chloroplast of a thin-walled mesophyll cell and a 4-carbon acid is handed off to a thick-walled bundle sheath cell where the Calvin cycle occurs in a chloroplast of that second cell. This protects the Calvin cycle from the effects of .

The chain provides energy from the creation of ATP needed in the Calvin Cycle.

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The Calvin cycle
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What Is the Primary Function of the Calvin Cycle?

The Calvin cycle, or the light-independent (dark) reactions of photosythesis.

The Calvin cycle is a reductive process in the stroma of chloroplasts responsible for the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide. The reactions are organized in a cyclic metabolic pathway that was named after its discoverer Melvin Calvin who received the Nobel Price for Chemistry in 1961. Reducing power in the form of NADPH (nicotinamide‐adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form) and energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) required for this process are generated in the light reactions located in the thylakoid membrane. Light activation of this process is achieved by covalent redox‐modification of some key enzymes that are inactive in the dark.