SSRN-id1281559 | Hypothesis | Bootstrapping (Statistics)

Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture.

The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution

N2 - Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture.


Statistical Hypothesis Testing; Bootstrapping (Statistics) ..

self study - Bootstrapping and hypothesis testing - …

The Hayes and Preacher bootstrapping macro can be used to test hypotheses about the linear combinations of indirect effects: For example, it can be if they are equal or if they sum to zero.


Example of Bootstrapping in Statistics - ThoughtCo

For the past year I have constantly said things like "If the value of exceeds the critical value at = .05, we can say that if we collected data over and over again with the null hypothesis true, only 5% of the time would we have a result more extreme than the critical value." When I come to hypothesis testing below, I am going to say exactly the same thing, only this time I really do collect a great many samples--though I do it with computer software rather than by finding huge numbers of participants. The major difference is that with a test I imagine myself drawing these samples from a normally distributed population with certain characteristics, whereas with bootstrapping I actually do draw the samples from a population that looks exactly like the sample distribution.

Stone & point null hypothesis that it ..

Syntactic bootstrapping in linguistics refers to the hypothesis that children utilize innately-known conceptual knowledge to create grammatical categories when acquiring their first language. Thus, for example, categories like "type of object/person" maps directly onto the linguistic "noun", category like "action" onto "verb", etc.