Process of protein biosynthesis

Hershey JWB (1987) Protein synthesis. In: Neidhardt FC, Ingraham JL, Low KB et al. (eds) E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 1st edn, vol. 1, pp. 613–647. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.

Outline of pathways of synthesis of essential amino acids.

Ribosomes are responsible for translating the information in messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) to synthesise proteins that the cell needs to carry out its function. Protein synthesis begins with the 30S ribosomal subunit recruiting a mRNA with the help of an initiator transfer RNA and three initiation factors. Successful recruitment of the mRNA results in the formation of the 30S pre‐initiation complex, which is followed by the joining of the 50S ribosomal subunit to form the 70S ribosome. Recent studies indicate the order in which the initiation factors bind and promote the steps in initiation complex formation. The formation of the pre‐initiation/initiation complex is often the rate‐limiting step during the process of translation, as it is influenced by a number of translational regulatory mechanisms. As a result, the process of initiation can play a significant role in gene expression.

Protein synthesis and protein engineering

This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.

Protein synthesis and engineering. Protein biosynthesis

Alanine, glutamate and glutamine are crucial links between energy and protein metabolism. Moreover, glutamine and alanine biosynthesis in the peripheral tissues (muscle) provides a means for the transport of carbon to the liver for gluconeogenesis and nitrogen for ureagenesis.

reutilised in protein synthesis

There are several nonprotein functions of amino acids, such as the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, which involve more nonessential than essential amino acids.

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis | Boundless Biology

Quality control and chaperones
If at all, a wrong amino acid is added, tRNA synthetase removes the incorrectly attached amino acid through hydrolytic editing. There are protein molecules called chaperones that catalyze the correct folding of other proteins within the cell. They also help in preventing aggregation. The hsp70 family of molecular chaperones helps in correct folding after synthesis.

Biochemistry: Protein Biosynthesis

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

PPT – Protein Biosynthesis PowerPoint presentation | …

Outline of pathways of synthesis of nonessential amino acids. Modified from Munro HM (ed.) (1969) Evolution of protein metabolism in mammals. In: , vol. 3, pp. 133–182. New York: Academic Press.