The phosphate group of glycerol-3-phosphate is removed by ..

Four homologous isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), each the product of a separate gene, catalyze the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid from glycerol-3-phosphate and long-chain acyl-CoA. This step initiates the synthesis of all the glycerolipids and evidence from gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mice and in cell culture strongly suggests that each isoform contributes to the synthesis of triacylglycerol. Much work remains to fully delineate the regulation of each GPAT isoform and its individual role in triacylglycerol synthesis.

Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols Two Main Biosynthetic Pathways •sn-glycerol-3-phosphate pathway ..

N2 - Four homologous isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), each the product of a separate gene, catalyze the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid from glycerol-3-phosphate and long-chain acyl-CoA. This step initiates the synthesis of all the glycerolipids and evidence from gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mice and in cell culture strongly suggests that each isoform contributes to the synthesis of triacylglycerol. Much work remains to fully delineate the regulation of each GPAT isoform and its individual role in triacylglycerol synthesis.


Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase ..

T1 - Biosynthesis of glycerol phosphate is associated with long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurons

N2 - Glycerol and glucose utilization for phospholipid biosynthesis was examined in type II pneumocytes isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In cells from diabetic rats, incorporation of [1,3-14C]glycerol into total phosphatidylcholine (PC), disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) occurred to a greater degree by the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway as opposed to the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway. Total incorporation of glycerol into each of the major cellular phospholipids was increased up to 6-fold in cells from diabetic rats, while the total incorporation of glucose into the same lipids was decreased 2-fold. While the percentage of both glucose and glycerol carbons incorporated into the backbone of DSPC was increased in cells from diabetic rats, the percentage of carbons from both substrates incorporated into the fatty acid moieties was decreased. As a measure of DSPC synthesis, choline incorporation into DSPC was significantly decreased in type II cells from diabetic animals if the cells were incubated in the presence of glucose, palmitate and choline but not glycerol. Addition of 0.1 or 0.3 mM glycerol to the incubation medium restored choline incorporation to the control value in cells from diabetic rats, but did not affect the rate of choline incorporation into DSPC in cells from normal rats. These results suggest that exogenous glycerol can compensate for reduced glucose metabolism in type II cells of diabetic animals to maintain a constant rate of DSPC synthesis.