The most extensively described, yet still least understood, rhythmic phenomenon in depression is the so-called classic melancholic symptom of diurnal variation of mood (DV) (see ref. 21 for a review). In the last few years, a number of studies have documented that DV is a frequent phenomenon, but not specific for endogenous depression (DV is also found, for example, in reactive depression, or in SAD). It is not even specific for depression, because it occurs in healthy subjects and in other psychiatric illnesses. The presence of DV is not consistent throughout the course of depression: the type of DV (morning low, evening low, indifferent pattern) can change from day to day in a given patient. In short, DV is surprisingly variable when one considers its prominent position in established diagnostic systems.
One of the most researched animal models of depression is that of stress-induced behavioral change. In rhythm studies, stress has resulted in failure to entrain to a light–dark cycle, 48-hr days, lengthening of free-running period, and long-term reductions in the 24-hr mean activity level. A second strategy yields findings suggesting that strains selected for specific behavioral or neurochemical properties also manifest altered circadian rhythmicity (e.g., the Flinders sensitive rat strain has both an up-regulated cholinergic system and short circadian period and advanced phase of temperature and REM sleep). A third strategy analyzes circadian rhythm sequelae of specific lesions (e.g., olfactory bulbectomy in rats results in delayed entrainment phase and lengthening of free-running period).
An Unbiased View of Biological Causes Of Depression Essay
Some intolerance symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, epilepsy, hyperactivity, and schizophrenic episodes involve brain function (Egger 1988, Scadding & Brostoff 1988).
Radcliffe (1982, quoted in 1987:808) listed the foods at fault, in descending order of frequency, in a trial involving 50 people: wheat (more than 70 per cent of subjects reacted in some way to it), milk (60 per cent), egg (35 per cent), corn, cheese, potato, coffee, rice, yeast, chocolate, tea, citrus, oats, pork, plaice, cane, and beef (10 per cent).
Biological Theory Of Depression | Researchomatic
Evident characteristics include: attempted suicide (para-suicide), family troubles, and social inabilities.The recurrence hypothesis states that equal proportions of males and females will experience at least one episode of depression (the first episode), but that more females than males will go on to have greater than one lifetime episode (Hankin & Abramson, 1998).
Biological Aspects of Postpartum Depression - …
Social factors, as social zeitgebers, have been formalized within a circadian hypothesis of mood disorders (17). This conceptual approach has the attractive feature of linking the biological hypotheses with psychosocial research. Social zeitgebers are personal relationships, jobs, social demands, or tasks that serve to entrain biological rhythms. They determine the timing of meals, sleep, and physical exercise. These social factors also have the potential to disrupt circadian rhythms. Some of the particular psychosocial precipitants of depressive disorder, such as life events, chronic stresses, or lack of appropriate social support systems, may be considered to act as precipitants by inducing rhythm disruptions (e.g., acute changes in the sleep–wake cycle, drop in activity level). Conversely, psychotherapy, as well as social interventions, may act to synchronize the circadian system. Perhaps they incidentally enhance exposure to physical zeitgebers such as light. Given the new knowledge about behavioral feedback on the circadian clock, social zeitgebers could be postulated to act through neural pathways related to arousal.
Serotonin and depression | The BMJ
These obstacles are just additives to all the gender stereotypes and identity roles that women already deal with. Although women are diagnose with comorbidity of anxiety disorders and depression twice as often as men, the rates and pattern of comorbid disorders seem quite similar across the genders (Kimberling & Ouimette, 2002).
Biological Markers of Depression | SpringerLink
Depressed men and women comorbid with social phobia may pose distinct treatment challenges because they may be less likely to accept referral into a therapy group given their fear of being exposed to the scrutiny of others and speaking in front of a group (Kimberling & Ouimette, 2002). The cumulative burden of multiple diagnoses (comorbidity) may be that it has been strongly associated with decreased well-being, compromised health and quality of life, and poor psychosocial adjustment (Kimberling & Ouimette, 2002).