Alternatively, an uninterrupted DNA molecule may be obtained by applying a polymerase chain reaction using appropriate 5' and 3' oligonucleotides on the first strandcDNA synthesized from the RNA of arabinoxylan-induced cells.
In bread production, a knowledge of both the alpha-amylase content and the water absorption of the flour are essential. Heavy rainfall and high humidity at the time of harvesting leads to preharvest sprouting, and the synthesis of amylase. High levels of this enzyme in flour leads to excessive starch dextrinisation in the baking process, which results in a sticky loaf, which is difficult to slice. Water added to flour is absorbed by protein, pentosans and starch. The major variable affecting water absorption is the level of damaged starch granules which are produced during the milling of the grain.
In modern baking practices the endogenous flour enzymes are commonly supplemented with enzymes of microbial origin e.g. α-Amylase, xylanase, and in some cases, proteases. Xylanase, through the modification of wheat flour arabinoxylans, can give up to a 10 % increase in loaf volume. Proteases can be added to soften, particularly tough (bucky) glutens. However, high protease levels will destroy the gluten properties.
Xylazyme AX finds widespread application in the measurement of xylanase in wheat flours and bread improvers mixtures. alpha-Amylase is routinely measured using Ceralpha: alpha-amylase assay reagent. The need for rapid and simple procedures for the measurement of protease in bread improvers mixtures lead to the development, by Megazyme, of Protazyme AK Tablets and Azo-Casein (which is far superior to the Azo-Casein currently commercially available from other suppliers).
Relevant Megazyme Products:
Acetic Acid Assay Kit
Alpha-Amylase (A. oryzae)
Ammonia Rapid Assay Kit
Amylase HR (high range) Assay Reagent
Amylazyme Test Tablets
Amylazyme Red Test Tablets
Ascorbic Acid Assay Kit
Azo-Casein (Sulphanilimide dyed)
Betamyl-3 (Beta-Amylase) Assay Kit
D-/L-Lactic Acid (D-/L-Lactate) Assay Kit
D-Fructose/D-Glucose Assay Kit
D-Fructose/D-Glucose (Liquid Ready Reagents) Kit
D-Glucose (GOPOD Format) Assay Kit
D-Glucose-HK Assay Kit
Ethanol Assay Kit
Glycerol Assay Kit
Lactose/D-Galactose Assay Kit
L-Ascorbic Acid (L-Ascorbate) Assay Kit
L-Glutamic Acid/L-Glutamate/MSG Assay Kit
L-Lactic Acid (L-Lactate) Assay Kit
Maltose/Sucrose/D-Glucose Assay Kit
Protazyme AK Test Tablets
Raffinose/D-Galactose Assay Kit
Sucrose/D-Fructose/D-Glucose Assay Kit
Sucrose/D-Glucose Assay Kit
Lactose/Sucrose/D-Glucose Assay Kit
Total Starch Assay Kit
Urea/Ammonia Assay Kit
Xylanase Assay Kit (Xylazyme AX Format)
Xylazyme (100 mg tablets)
Xylazyme AX (60 mg tablets)
Synthesis of arabinoxylan fragments
Alternatively, a cDNA library may be prepared by cloning cDNA, synthesized from mRNA isolated from fungal cells induced for the synthesis of an arabinoxylan degrading enzyme, is into an appropriate phage vector, e.g.