. Cattoir V, Kobal A, Legrand P. First Molecular Characterization of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Aerococcus spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Nov 15.
: The m and different fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol, chloroform and n-hexane) of leaves possess against , ,and (). Likewise, the ethanolic and ms from stem, berries and whole plant of inhibits the growth of , , and . The methanolic extract generally shows higher than the s. Furthermore, the extracts of the whole plant have been reported to possess anti-bacterial activity ().
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Also contains a amorphous bitter principle, picroretine and traces of berberine.
• A study showed that the bitter extract of the stem does not contain an alkaloid.
• Leaves yielded picroretine, traces of an alkaloid, and a substance similar to glyzirrhizin.
• Bitter principle is glucosidal in nature.
• Study reported two alkaloids, tinosporine and tinosporidine.
What is Antibiotic Resistance and Why ..
There are no commercially available vaccines for use in the prevention of actinomycosis, but before the modern antibacterial drugs had been introduced into therapy a polyvalent heterovaccine developed by Lentze was shown to provide comparatively good therapeutic results especially in severe chronic cases that had not responded to any other treatment ().
What is Antibiotic Resistance and Why is it a problem
When using the German therapeutic concept outlined above, long-term antibiotic treatment of human actinomycoses was never found to be needed. As far as early or subacute stages of the cervicofacial form of the disease are concerned, administration of plus clavulanic acid together with incision of the lesions and drainage of pus as adjunctive surgical measures have nearly always resulted in complete cure within two weeks. Only rarely, chronic and extensive cervicofacial processes may require up to four weeks of treatment. Thoracic and abdominal actinomycoses may also respond appropriately to a two-week antibiotic regimen, but the - intravenous- therapy has often to be continued for four and rarely six weeks. In advanced chronic cases, addition of to increase aminopenicillin tissue levels or, depending on the composition of the concomitant flora, of (or ) or aminoglycosides may be necessary to achieve prompt cure. Provided that choice of agent, dosage, and duration of primary antibiotic treatment had been adequate, subsequent oral administration of antibiotics of whatever kind never appeared to be an eventual or even essential prerequisite for a favorable outcome of the treatment ().
Modes of antimicrobial action and mechanisms of bacterial resistance
Electrolytes: With the increasing global temperature, the birds are becoming more susceptible to that to more pronounced in tropical climatic conditions. The birds will be under when they are exposed to a temperature of above 25°C (above thermoneutral zone). These birds exhibit panting, a rapid, shallow breathing (), to reduce the body temperature because of the lack of sweat glands (). Panting causes excessive loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) and leads to respiratory alkalosis () due to loss of bicarbonate ions along with potassium (K) or sodium (Na) from the body (). These metabolic alterations lead to reduced feed intake, growth rate, survivability and in turn profitability (). Dietary manipulations like increasing the supplemental level of vitamins and minerals along with the altered energy and protein content in the diet were tried to compensate the reduced feed intake in this climatic conditions (). Loss of electrolytes can be prevented by dietary cations and anions as dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) (); which describes the supplementation of electrolytes (sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), potassium chloride (KCl), calcium chloride (CaC12) and ammonium chloride (NH4C1) either through feed or water (). Sodium salts (NaCl, NaHCO3) through diet had resulted in better body weight gain, feed intake and feed to gain ratio and also increased water intake ().