Surface waters receive ammonia from point sources, such as effluent from sewage treatment and industrial plants, in quantities estimated in the USA to be about half a million tonnes annually.
Lethal effects of ammonium chloride on the quahog clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, and eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, were studied by Epifano & Srna (1975).
Ammonium bicarbonate is the more readily formed and the more stable.
Respiratory tract Egle (1973) studied the retention, over a short period of time, of inhaled ammonia in air at concentrations in the range 150 - 500 mg/m3 (214 - 714 ppm), in mongrel dogs of both sexes (7 - 37 per study).
thermal decomposition, ammonium chloride in water and ..
In 2 studies, acute exposure of the fresh-water crayfish, Orconectes nais, to ammonium chloride gave LC50 values of 3.15 and 3.82 mg NH3/litre, respectively (Evans, 1979; Hazel et al., 1979).
Ammonium Nutrition Enhances Chlorophyll and Glaucousness in ..
Exposure of unfertilized sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus, eggs to ammonium chloride resulted in stimulation of the initial rate of protein synthesis, an event that normally follows fertilization (Winkler & Grainger, 1978).
ammonium chloride, NH4CL, reacts with calcium …
pictus, and Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis to ammonium chloride (Johnson et al., 1976; Paul et al., 1976) caused "fertilization acid" to be released more rapidly and in greater amounts than after insemination.
Reaction between ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide
Shilo & Shilo (1953, 1955) reported that the euryhaline alga Prymnesium parvum was effectively controlled by applications of ammonium sulfate, which exerted a lytic effect that decreased with increasing pH, indicating that NH3 and not NH4+ is responsible for the lytic activity of ammonium sulfate on P.
dissolving ammonium chloride in water;
The polychetous annelid, Nereis succinea, the channelled whelk, Busycon canaliculatum, and the brackish-water clam, Rangia cuneata, were exposed to concentrations of 0.85, 0.37, and 0.27 mg NH3/litre and the ammonia excretion measured (Mangum et al., 1978).
Chloride in Plants, Water and Soil- Essential or Harmful?
(1976) transplanted 7 species of "clean water" macrophytes to various sections of a river, and found that ammonia affected only Nymphaea caerulea.