It is a base and so will neutralise acids to form salts.

In contrast, fluoroakylated acrylic acid/trimethylvinylsilane co-oligomers are readily soluble in not only in water but also in common organic solvent such as methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, DMF, DMSO, benzene, toluene and xylene.

It is used in the synthesis of the alcohol  by combining it with .

Formic Acid Chemical Economics Handbook Published December 2016 Formic acid (methanoic acid, HCOOH) is a colorless liquid with a sharp odor....


Concentrated nitric acid reacts with organic compounds e.g.

Phosphoric(V) acid (H3PO4) forms phosphate salts with bases/alkalis e.g.

These new acrylic acid oligomers containing the perfluoro-oxa-alkylene unit were shown to be soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran and were not only able to reduce the surface tension of water effectively but also to confer a good oil repellency.


Toronto Research Chemicals - TRC Canada

Basic chemicals, produced in large quantities, are mainly sold within the chemical industry and to other industries before becoming products for the general consumer. For example, ethanoic acid is sold on to make esters, much of which in turn is sold to make paints and at that point sold to the consumer. Huge quantities of ethene are transported as a gas by pipeline around Europe and sold to companies making poly(ethene) and other polymers. These are then sold on to manufacturers of plastic components before being bought by the actual consumer. Figure 3 shows a plant producing chemicals which it then immediately uses to manufacture other chemicals.

Acid value - definition of acid value by The Free Dictionary

Thus we are coming full circle. In the late 19th and the first part of the 20th centuries, the organic chemical industry was based largely on coal and biomass. Coal was heated strongly in the absence of air to form coal gas (a mixture of hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide). A liquid (coal tar) was formed as a by-product which contained many useful organic chemicals, including benzene, and the solid residue was coke, an impure form of carbon. Coke was the source of what we now call synthesis gas. Steam was passed over it at high temperatures to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Another source of organic chemicals was biomass. For example, the source of many C2 chemicals was ethanol, produced by . C3 and C4 chemicals such as propanone and butanol were also produced on a large scale by fermentation of biomass.

Turning trash into clean fuels and chemicals

Sangi’s research into catalysts began in the 1990s with the synthesis of bio-gasoline, a chemical mixture very close to high-octane fuel, obtained using plant-derived ethanol as raw material. This research was then taken further to focus on synthesis of a number of valuable chemical products from bio-ethanol and other biomass-derived raw materials.

Apatite catalysts, with their finely controlled properties, possess a variety of catalyzing functions not found in existing solid catalysts. For example, they make it possible to selectively synthesize higher alcohols from ethanol, with selectivity of over 70% in the case of n-butanol, a product vitally important in the chemical industry as a material for paint solvents and plasticizing agents, and superior in chemical properties to ethanol as a replacement for gasoline. Sangi’s technology makes it possible to manufacture, from environmentally friendly, biomass-derived ethanol, a range of industrial chemicals that are still commercially fossil fuel derived.

In addition, Sangi is working collaboratively with university researchers to selectively synthesize acrylic acid from lactic acid using hydroxyapatite catalysts. Since lactic acid is currently produced from biomass-derived materials, this raises the prospect of acrylic acid, a key raw material for the production of super-absorbent polymers and a wide range of products, being synthesized in future from an environmentally friendly source.

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Polyether Polyols for Urethanes Chemical Economics Handbook Published November 2015 Polyurethanes are based on the exothermic reaction of polyisocyanates...